2011
22
1
1
100
Differences in Genetic Structure among Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Oriental Beech) Populations under Different Management Conditions: Implications for
in situ Gene Conservation
Differences in Genetic Structure among Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Oriental Beech) Populations under Different Management Conditions: Implications for
in situ Gene Conservation
2
2
Resource sustainability requires a thorough understanding of the influence of forest management programs on the conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations. To observe how differences in forest management affect the genetic structure of Fagus orientalis Lipsky (oriental beech), we evaluated thirteen beech sites across Hyrcanian forests, based on six microsatellite loci. Significant differences between managed (mostly shelter wood system) and unmanaged populations was revealed. Inbreeding coefficient in managed populations was higher than unmanaged populations. A low, but significant, differentiation among all populations was found which reveals a clear geographic structure. Although the results indicate that the shelter wood system has minimum impact on the genetic diversity on a short term in oriental beech, but definitely inbreeding can increase in beech populations under intense management for long periods of time. According to these results, 4 populations from different part of Hyrcanian forests are suggested as potential in situ conservation sites.
1
Resource sustainability requires a thorough understanding of the influence of forest management programs on the conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations. To observe how differences in forest management affect the genetic structure of Fagus orientalis Lipsky (oriental beech), we evaluated thirteen beech sites across Hyrcanian forests, based on six microsatellite loci. Significant differences between managed (mostly shelter wood system) and unmanaged populations was revealed. Inbreeding coefficient in managed populations was higher than unmanaged populations. A low, but significant, differentiation among all populations was found which reveals a clear geographic structure. Although the results indicate that the shelter wood system has minimum impact on the genetic diversity on a short term in oriental beech, but definitely inbreeding can increase in beech populations under intense management for long periods of time. According to these results, 4 populations from different part of Hyrcanian forests are suggested as potential in situ conservation sites.
5
17
P.
Salehi Shanjani
P.
Salehi Shanjani
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P. O. BOX 13185-116,
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands,
Iran
Fagus orientalis Lipsky
Forest management
In situ conservation
Genetic diversity
Hyrcanian Forests
New Enzymatic Colorimetric Method for the Quantitative Determination of Phenylalanine in Dry-Blood Spots
New Enzymatic Colorimetric Method for the Quantitative Determination of Phenylalanine in Dry-Blood Spots
2
2
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by severe mental retardation, microcephaly and seizures. The symptoms of this disease can be prevented if detected soon after birth. Therefore, blood Phenylalanine (Phe) measurement is essential for the early diagnosis, treatment and dietary monitoring of PKU patients. The goal of this research was to introduce a rapid, precise and effective enzymatic colorimetric method using the recombinant Bacillus badius phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH; EC 1.4.1.20) for the quantitative determination of Phe in dry-blood spots. This test was based on the enzymatic reaction of PheDH coupled with an artificial electron acceptor system composed of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and iodonitro tetrazolium chloride (INT). This assay system contained PMS to transfer the electrons of NADH to INT, enabling the formation of formazan with an absorbance at 490 nm. Calibration curve was plotted and the experimental data were fitted by linear regression analyze. The regression equation and correlation coefficient (R2) were Y= 0.0109x + 0.032 and R2=0.996, respectively. This method showed a recovery in the range of 95.1%-102.6% and had the limit detection of 0.5 mg/dl for Phe. The between run coefficients of variation (CVs) mean was between 3.8% and 9.1%. The within-run CVs was between 8.5% and 18.6%. Furthermore, no interferences from other amino acids and Phe derivatives were observed. Altogether, we here presented a quick and reliable enzymatic colorimetric assay for application in newborn screening and monitoring of PKU patients.
1
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by severe mental retardation, microcephaly and seizures. The symptoms of this disease can be prevented if detected soon after birth. Therefore, blood Phenylalanine (Phe) measurement is essential for the early diagnosis, treatment and dietary monitoring of PKU patients. The goal of this research was to introduce a rapid, precise and effective enzymatic colorimetric method using the recombinant Bacillus badius phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH; EC 1.4.1.20) for the quantitative determination of Phe in dry-blood spots. This test was based on the enzymatic reaction of PheDH coupled with an artificial electron acceptor system composed of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and iodonitro tetrazolium chloride (INT). This assay system contained PMS to transfer the electrons of NADH to INT, enabling the formation of formazan with an absorbance at 490 nm. Calibration curve was plotted and the experimental data were fitted by linear regression analyze. The regression equation and correlation coefficient (R2) were Y= 0.0109x + 0.032 and R2=0.996, respectively. This method showed a recovery in the range of 95.1%-102.6% and had the limit detection of 0.5 mg/dl for Phe. The between run coefficients of variation (CVs) mean was between 3.8% and 9.1%. The within-run CVs was between 8.5% and 18.6%. Furthermore, no interferences from other amino acids and Phe derivatives were observed. Altogether, we here presented a quick and reliable enzymatic colorimetric assay for application in newborn screening and monitoring of PKU patients.
5
24
E.
Omidinia
E.
Omidinia
Pasteur Institute of Iran
Pasteur Institute of Iran
Iran
nzymatic method
Phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH)
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Phenylalanine (Phe)
Synthesis of 4-(2-Methylthiazol-4-yl)-Hexahydroquinoline and 1,4-Dihydropyrimidin Derivatives
Synthesis of 4-(2-Methylthiazol-4-yl)-Hexahydroquinoline and 1,4-Dihydropyrimidin Derivatives
2
2
A series of new hexahydroquinoline and 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives were synthesized. Condensation of 2-methyl- thiazole-4-carboxaldehyde (1) with 1,3-cyclohexanedione and alkyl 3- aminocrotonate afforded 4-(2-methyl-thiazol-4-yl)-hexahydroquinoline while condensation of aldehyde (1) with benzoyl acetone and thiourea gave 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives. The stereochemistry of 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives were studied using 1HNMR.
1
A series of new hexahydroquinoline and 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives were synthesized. Condensation of 2-methyl- thiazole-4-carboxaldehyde (1) with 1,3-cyclohexanedione and alkyl 3- aminocrotonate afforded 4-(2-methyl-thiazol-4-yl)-hexahydroquinoline while condensation of aldehyde (1) with benzoyl acetone and thiourea gave 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives. The stereochemistry of 1,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives were studied using 1HNMR.
21
45
A.
Shafiee
A.
Shafiee
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iran
1
4-Dihydropyrimidines
4-Hexahydroquinoline
Thiazoles
1-4-Dihydropyridine
Synthesis and in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Novel 2-Amino-4, 6-D Derivatives
Synthesis and in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Novel 2-Amino-4, 6-D Derivatives
2
2
Heterocyclic systems are one of the most important classes of organic compounds present in nature or synthesized in laboratory. These compounds posses an array of biological activities and are employed in the treatment of commonly occurring diseases. Keeping this in view, some new 2-amino-4,6-diarylpyrimidine from chalcones were synthesized. Eight novel 2-amino-4,6-diarylpyrimidine derivatives have been prepared by condensation of chalcone derivatives with guanidine hydrochloride. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity. The recorded zone of inhibition showed significant antibacterial activity when compared with reference standard Sparfloxacin.
1
Heterocyclic systems are one of the most important classes of organic compounds present in nature or synthesized in laboratory. These compounds posses an array of biological activities and are employed in the treatment of commonly occurring diseases. Keeping this in view, some new 2-amino-4,6-diarylpyrimidine from chalcones were synthesized. Eight novel 2-amino-4,6-diarylpyrimidine derivatives have been prepared by condensation of chalcone derivatives with guanidine hydrochloride. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity. The recorded zone of inhibition showed significant antibacterial activity when compared with reference standard Sparfloxacin.
27
57
S.A.
Rahaman
S.A.
Rahaman
Nirmala College of Pharmacy
Nirmala College of Pharmacy
Iran
41-Piperazine acetophenone
Pyrimidines
Guanidine and Sparfloxacin
Signatures of the Balarud Deep Seated Fault Zone in Khushab Anticline, SW Iran, An Integrated Study
Signatures of the Balarud Deep Seated Fault Zone in Khushab Anticline, SW Iran, An Integrated Study
2
2
The Khushab anticline is located in the Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Lurestan. This anticline is affected by the Balarud fault zone, which is a part of Mountain Front Fault between the Lurestan and Dezful Embayment zones. Based on the measurement of the elements of fold style, this anticline is analyzed. According to these measurements, this anticline is a noncylindrical, asymmetrical and disharmonic fold. The anticline is a z-fold and verges slightly to the southwest. The tightness and bluntness of folding suggests that fold is gentle to close and subangular respectively. Broad to wide is suggested as disccriptive term of the aspect ratio. Based on Ramsay's classification the fold is subclass 1B to 1C. The field observations, seismic profiles, cross-sections, analyses of the geometric parameters and comparison of the anticline with the fault-related fold models suggest the anticline as a detachment fold that is probably sheared by this zone. The sinistral shear of this zone, due to a system of shear fractures is discussed. These fractures (C, D, E, F, and G sets) which occur obliquely with respect to fold axis are shear fractures. Another fracture system including A and B sets are parallel and perpendicular to fold axis respectively. These fractures formed in association with folding. It seems that two phases are responsible for forming of these fractures. A and B sets were formed in first phase and associated with formation of anticline. The shear fracture system was formed in second phase and is under effect of this zone.
1
The Khushab anticline is located in the Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Lurestan. This anticline is affected by the Balarud fault zone, which is a part of Mountain Front Fault between the Lurestan and Dezful Embayment zones. Based on the measurement of the elements of fold style, this anticline is analyzed. According to these measurements, this anticline is a noncylindrical, asymmetrical and disharmonic fold. The anticline is a z-fold and verges slightly to the southwest. The tightness and bluntness of folding suggests that fold is gentle to close and subangular respectively. Broad to wide is suggested as disccriptive term of the aspect ratio. Based on Ramsay's classification the fold is subclass 1B to 1C. The field observations, seismic profiles, cross-sections, analyses of the geometric parameters and comparison of the anticline with the fault-related fold models suggest the anticline as a detachment fold that is probably sheared by this zone. The sinistral shear of this zone, due to a system of shear fractures is discussed. These fractures (C, D, E, F, and G sets) which occur obliquely with respect to fold axis are shear fractures. Another fracture system including A and B sets are parallel and perpendicular to fold axis respectively. These fractures formed in association with folding. It seems that two phases are responsible for forming of these fractures. A and B sets were formed in first phase and associated with formation of anticline. The shear fracture system was formed in second phase and is under effect of this zone.
33
81
H.
Hajialibeigi
H.
Hajialibeigi
Shahid Beheshti University
Shahid Beheshti University
Iran
Balarud fault zone
Zagros fold-thrust belt
Khushab anticline
Detachment folding
Newton-Product Integration for a
Stefan Problem with Kinetics
Newton-Product Integration for a
Stefan Problem with Kinetics
2
2
Stefan problem with kinetics is reduced to a system of nonlinear Volterra integral equations of second kind and Newton's method is applied to linearize it. Product integration solution of the linear form is found and sufficient conditions for convergence of the numerical method are given. An example is provided to illustrated the applicability of the method.
1
Stefan problem with kinetics is reduced to a system of nonlinear Volterra integral equations of second kind and Newton's method is applied to linearize it. Product integration solution of the linear form is found and sufficient conditions for convergence of the numerical method are given. An example is provided to illustrated the applicability of the method.
51
111
K.
Ivaz
K.
Ivaz
University of Tabriz
University of Tabriz
Iran
Product integration
Stefan problem
Weakly singular Volterra integral equations
Kinetic function
Newton's method
The Symmetries of Equivalent Lagrangian
Systems and Constants of Motion
The Symmetries of Equivalent Lagrangian
Systems and Constants of Motion
2
2
In this paper Mathematical structure of time-dependent Lagrangian systems and their symmetries are extended and the explicit relation between constants of motion and infinitesimal symmetries of time-dependent Lagrangian systems are considered. Starting point is time-independent Lagrangian systems ,then we extend mathematical concepts of these systems such as equivalent lagrangian systems to the case of time-dependent Lagrangian systems. Also some new theorems and corollaries will be proved. Finally we make a 1-1 correspondence between the symmetries of equivalent time-dependent lagrangian systems and constants of motion by the new geometric concept of Galilean space-time.
1
In this paper Mathematical structure of time-dependent Lagrangian systems and their symmetries are extended and the explicit relation between constants of motion and infinitesimal symmetries of time-dependent Lagrangian systems are considered. Starting point is time-independent Lagrangian systems ,then we extend mathematical concepts of these systems such as equivalent lagrangian systems to the case of time-dependent Lagrangian systems. Also some new theorems and corollaries will be proved. Finally we make a 1-1 correspondence between the symmetries of equivalent time-dependent lagrangian systems and constants of motion by the new geometric concept of Galilean space-time.
63
132
N.
Elyasi
N.
Elyasi
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Iran
Infinitesimal symmetries
Lagrangian system
Symmetries of Lagrangian systems
Hamiltonian system
Constant of motion
Strong Topological Regularity and Weak Regularity of Banach Algebras
Strong Topological Regularity and Weak Regularity of Banach Algebras
2
2
In this article we study two different generalizations of von Neumann regularity, namely strong topological regularity and weak regularity, in the Banach algebra context. We show that both are hereditary properties and under certain assumptions, weak regularity implies strong topological regularity. Then we consider strong topological regularity of certain concrete algebras. Moreover we obtain the following non-commutative analog of a result of Kaplansky. A bounded operator T on a Banach space X whose point spectrum ?p(T) contains a nonzero complex number, is weakly regular.
1
In this article we study two different generalizations of von Neumann regularity, namely strong topological regularity and weak regularity, in the Banach algebra context. We show that both are hereditary properties and under certain assumptions, weak regularity implies strong topological regularity. Then we consider strong topological regularity of certain concrete algebras. Moreover we obtain the following non-commutative analog of a result of Kaplansky. A bounded operator T on a Banach space X whose point spectrum ?p(T) contains a nonzero complex number, is weakly regular.
71
144
G.H.
Esslamzadeh
G.H.
Esslamzadeh
Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Iran
Strongly topologically regular
Weakly regular
Time Delays in Cosmic Ray Propagation
Time Delays in Cosmic Ray Propagation
2
2
Cosmic Rays (CR) travel at speeds essentially indistinguishable from the speed of light. However whilst travelling through magnetic fields, both regular and turbulent, they are delayed behind the light since they are usually charged particles and their paths are not linear. Those delays can be so long that they are an impediment to correctly identifying sources which may be variable in time. Furthermore deduction of CR sources without knowing CR time delays is not possible, so the magnitude of such delays will be discussed and compared to the characteristic time variation of possible cosmic ray sources.
1
Cosmic Rays (CR) travel at speeds essentially indistinguishable from the speed of light. However whilst travelling through magnetic fields, both regular and turbulent, they are delayed behind the light since they are usually charged particles and their paths are not linear. Those delays can be so long that they are an impediment to correctly identifying sources which may be variable in time. Furthermore deduction of CR sources without knowing CR time delays is not possible, so the magnitude of such delays will be discussed and compared to the characteristic time variation of possible cosmic ray sources.
75
158
P.
Davoudifar
P.
Davoudifar
Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha
Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
Iran
Cosmic rays
Galaxies: general
ISM: Magnetic fields