Document Type: Main File (First File)


1 1Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Islamic Republic of Iran

2 2Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran

3 3Department of Geology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran


     Salt crystallization is one of the most powerful weathering agents that may cause a rapid change in the mechanical properties of stones, and thus limit their durability. Consequently, determining the mechanical properties of stones due to salt crystallization is important for natural building stones used in marine environmental and mild climatic conditions, which expose excessive salt crystallization cycles. In this study, multivariate regression analysis was performed for estimating the mechanical properties of travertine building stones after salt crystallization test. For this purpose, 12 travertine samples were selected and their physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, and P-wave velocity) were determined. Then salt crystallization test was carried out at sodium sulfate solution (Na2SO4) up to 50 cycles and, after every 5 cycles, the uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength and P-wave velocity of the samples were measured. Using data analysis, regression equations were developed for estimating the mechanical properties of deteriorated samples at any cycle of the salt crystallization test. In these equations, the mechanical properties of the samples after salt crystallization were considered to be the dependent variable, which is dependent on the independent variables of the number of salt crystallization cycles, initial mechanical properties of the stones and their porosities. The validity of the equations was verified with the mechanical properties data of a researcher for salt crystallization test. The results showed that regression equations are in good accuracy for estimating the mechanical properties of stones, and thus making a rapid durability assessment. 


Main Subjects

Bayram F. Predicting mechanical strength loss of natural stones after freeze–thaw in cold regions. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 83–84:98–102 (2012).

2. Ghobadi M.H., Babazadeh R., and Khodabakhsh S. Petrophysical and durability tests on sandstones for the evaluation of their quality as building stones using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). J. Geope. 4 (1):25–43 (2014).

3. Jamshidi A., Nikudel M.R., and Khamehchiyan M. Evaluation of the durability of Gerdoee travertine after freeze-thaw cycles in fresh water and sodium sulfate solution. Eng. Geol. 202: 36–43 (2016).

4. Jamshidi A., Nikudel M.R., and Khamehchiyan M. Predicting the long-term durability of building stones against freeze-thaw using a decay function model. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 92:29–36 (2013).

5. Jefferson D.P. Building stone: the geological dimension. Q. J. Eng. Geo. 26:305–319 (1993).

6. Benavente D., Garcia del Cura M.A., Fort R., and Ordonez S. Thermodynamic modeling of changes induced by salt pressure crystallization in porous media of stone. J. Cryst. Growth 204:168–178 (1999).

7.  Yu  S., and Oguchi C.T. Role of pore size distribution in salt uptake, damage, and predicting salt susceptibility of eight types of Japanese building stones. Eng. Geol. 115:226–236 (2010).

8. Buj O., and Gisbert J. Influence of pore morphology on the durability of sedimentary building stones from Aragon (Spain) subjected to standard salt decay tests. Environ. Earth Sci.  61:1327–1336 (2010).

9. Dragovich D., and Egan M. Salt weathering and experimental desalination treatment of building sandstone, Sydney (Australia). Environ. Earth Sci. 62:277–288 (2011).

10. Cultrone G., Luque A., and Sebastián E. Petrophysical and durability tests on sedimentary stones to evaluate their quality as building materials. Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydro. 45:415-422 (2012).

11. Ghobadi M.H., and Momeni, A.A. 2011. Assessment of granitic rocks degradability susceptive to acid solutions in urban area. Environ. Earth Sci. 65:753–760 (2011).

12. Martínez–Martínez  J., Benavente D., Gomez–Heras M., Marco–Castaño L.,and García–del–Cura M.A. Non-linear decay of building stones during freeze–thaw weathering processes. Constr. Build. Mater. 38:443–454 (2013).

13. Ghobad M.H., and Babazadeh, R. Experimental Studies on the Effects of Cyclic Freezing–Thawing, Salt Crystallization, and Thermal Shock on the Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Selected Sandstones. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 48:1001–1016 (2015a).

14. Ghobadi,M.H., and Babazadeh R. An investigation on the effect of accelerated weathering on strength and durability of Tertiary sandstones (Qazvin province, Iran). Environ. Earth Sci. 73: 4237–4250 (2015b).

15. Momeni A., Khanlari G.R., Heidari, M., Bagheri, R., and Bazvand E. Assessment of physical weathering effects on granitic ancient monuments, Hamedan, Iran. Environ. Earth Sci. 74: 5181–5190 (2015).

16. Yavuz A.B., and Topal T. Thermal and salt crystallization effects on marble deterioration: Examples from Western Anatolia, Turkey. Eng. Geol. 90:30–40 (2007).

17. Angeli M., Heber R., Menendez B., David C., and Bigas J.P. Influence of temperature and salt concentration on the salt weathering of a sedimentary stone with sodium sulphate. Eng. Geol. 115:193–199 (2010).

18. Akin A., and Ozsan A. Evaluation of the long-term durability of yellow travertine using accelerated weathering tests. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 70:101–114 (2011).

19. Mutluturk M., Altindag R., and Turk G. A decay function model for the integrity loss of rock when subjected to recurrent cycles of freezing–thawing and heating–cooling. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 41:237–244 (2004).

20. Vazquez P., Alonso F.J., Carrizo L., Molina E., Cultrone G., Blanco M., and Zamora I. Evaluation of the petrophysical properties of sedimentary building stones in order to establish quality criteria. Constr. Build. Mater. 41:868–878 (2013).

21. ISRM. Rock characterization testing and monitoring. ISRM suggested methods. In: Brown ET (ed), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 211 (1981).

22. EN 12370. Natural stone test methods - Determination of
resistance to salt crystallization. European Committee for Standardization (1999).