Document Type : Original Paper


1 Department of Tissue and Cell Culture, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 3135933151, Islamic Republic of Iran

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran-North Branch, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran


A 2,4-D-free protocol for indirect somatic embryogenesis from in vitro-induced root explants of date palm cv. Barhi has been established. Different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were applied for direct root induction from juvenile leaf explants of the apical dome in the shoot tip. The highest percentage of induced roots was obtained on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with NAA (1 mg l-1), NOA (3 mg l-1), IBA (1 mg l-1), and 2ip (0.1 mg l-1). The highest percentage of induced callus, both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli, was obtained from in vitro-induced roots cultured on the MS medium supplemented with BAP (2 mg l-1) and NAA (0.1 mg l-1). The highest number of somatic embryos was achieved on the MS medium supplemented with BAP (2 mg l-1) and NAA (0.1 mg l-1). Successful rooting of date palm plantlets achieved on the PGR-free half strength MS medium following three weeks. The survival rate of rooted plantlets, obtained from indirect somatic embryogenesis pathway, was 70.32%. The developed protocol would be applicable for rapid and efficient mass propagation of elite cultivars of date palm with less risk of generating genetic instability.